Category Archives: Alternative energy

Living in a “GREEN” world

This whole notion of being “green” seems to be sweeping through every product line in the nation.  Seeing a “green” product at any store is pretty common but, just a few years ago you had to search for “green” products.  The fact that so many organizations are jumping onto the “green” bandwagon is both promising and troubling.

I like to see that companies are trying to improve things like, operating efficiencies of their products, reduce their company’s overall energy consumption, reduce materials used while packaging, among many other things.  In addition to all of the positive environmental impacts, this is good and beneficial to everyone because, it costs the end user less to operate and it can cost less for the manufacture to produce/ship.  Why suddenly are we seeing so many “green” products, well there are several reasons for this but the main reason is that consumers are demanding them.  Energy costs have risen and because of this, consumers want devices that use less energy. For the very same reason companies are trying to reduce their energy consumptions.

The downside to seeing so many “green” products is being able to sort out the beneficial and non-beneficial products.  It is becoming increasingly difficult to find products that actually have a positive affect both environmentally and in reducing energy.  It seems the term “green” is being so over used that marketing departments are throwing the “green” label on anything they possibly can, in hopes of appealing to consumers.  Whether the product is actually all that “green” or not is besides the question.  Since “green” is the new favorite phrase of marketers, it is very important to be conscious of these tactics and to do some research for yourself. Don’t  buy something just because it says that is “green.”  Next time when you see a “green” product ask yourself some of the following questions:

What makes this product green?

How does this product compare to other products?

Does this green labeling have any actual positive affect on the environment or in reducing energy?

The United States Government is also getting on the “green” bandwagon.  Some of the things the government is doing are good and some of the things it is doing aren’t so good.  For example, the United States Government is planning on improving federal and state building efficiencies.  This is a good thing and it will not only save the government (and taxpayers) money but it will also use less energy.  Also, in order to reduce energy and environmental impact the government passed a bill that will end up phasing out incandescent light bulbs.  This bill requires that light bulbs be 70% more efficient by 2020.  As energy costs have gone up, people have been buying energy efficient products like compact fluorescent light bulbs (instead of incandescent light bulbs) without the government dictating anything.  We are seeing similar behavior with the Cap and Trade bill.  The Cap and Trade bill is going to try and force you to live a “greener” life by raising the costs of energy.  The hope is that doing this will reduce energy usage and benefit the environment.  Again, we are seeing an actual “green” change occur in all aspects of society already but, these changes are occurring because the market is adapting to higher energy prices.

So, Am I against going “green?”  No.  Am I against forcing people to go “green?” Yes.

I am fully in favor of trying to minimize the amount of natural resources we use and to use the resources we do use efficiently.  Also, I am in favor of using products that are more efficient and in favor of replacing incandescent light bulbs with more efficient bulbs.  I am not however, in favor of having someone else dictate to me what I have to do.  If someone does not want to stop using incandescent bulbs then they should not be forced to.  Instead of having big brother breath down our necks let the people and the market make the decisions.  That is how things are supposed to work, after all aren’t we suppose to have freedom and be a capitalist society?

Tell me your thoughts; I would be very interested to discuss some of these topics further.

Methods to Reduce Home Energy Usage

Update 6-11-2011: I added some information in the Space Heating and Space Cooling sections in order to discuss a different alternative, mini-split heat pumps.

 

Homes are one of the largest consumers of energy in the United States.  The unfortunate part of home energy usage is that a large portion of this energy is wasted because of inefficiencies.  Inefficiencies can range from air leaks to poor heating and air conditioning systems.

Increasing home efficiency will not only allow you to save money but it also reduces the amount of energy needed for your home.  Before you can start reducing the energy used in your home, you need to have a basic understanding of where the majority of the energy is used within your home.

US Department of Energy

Courtesy of U.S. Department of Energy

Looking at the pie chart we see that the four largest users of energy are space heating, space cooling, lighting and water heating.  These four segments account for roughly 66% of all the energy used in your home.  We are going to take a look at these four segments specifically and then cover the remaining segments generally.

Lighting

Typically, a large portion of household lighting uses incandescent light bulbs.  A very simple way to reduce your energy consumption is to use compact fluorescent light bulbs (CFL).  CFLs use about 75% less energy than incandescent bulbs and CFLs are designed to last ten times longer.  With so many benefits why wait to start converting your lighting over to fluorescent.  If you want more information on the available types of CFLs visit the Energy Star CFL search.  Amazon.com also has a decent CFL webpage that contains some good information on CFL bulbs and it is an excellent source to purchase your bulbs too.

Now I know many of you out there probably don’t believe that CFL bulbs are actually cost beneficial so, in order to help get this point across let me do some math for you.  I’m going to compute the total cost of each bulb which includes the cost of the bulb as well as the cost of the electricity used to run the bulb.  Incandescent bulbs have a maximum life expectancy of roughly 1000 hours while compact fluorescent bulbs have a maximum life expectancy of roughly 10,000 hours.  Since compact fluorescent bulbs last up to 10,000 hours I will compute the total cost of an incandescent bulb for the same duration of time, which will require the purchase of several incandescent bulbs.

Below is an example of how I computed this, following the example is the computation for each bulb type.


 

Example

(Bulb Wattage) x (Total Hours in Operation) = Watt-Hours

(Watt-Hours) / (1000) = Kilowatt-Hours

(Total Hours in Operation) / (Maximum Life Expectancy) = Number of Bulbs

(Kilowatt-Hours) x (Cost of Electricity per Kilowatt-Hour) = Cost of Electricity to Run Bulb

(Number of Bulbs) x (Cost of Bulbs) = Cost of Purchasing Bulbs For Duration

(Cost of Electricity to Run Bulb) + (Cost of Purchasing Bulbs for Duration) = Total Cost of Bulb

 


Incandescent Bulbs

(60 watts) x (10,000 hours) = 600,000 watt-hours

(600,000 watt-hours) / (1000) = 600 kilowatt-hours

(10,000 hours) / (1000 hours) = 10 bulbs

(600 kilowatt-hour) x ($ 0.10) = $60

(10 Bulbs) x ($ 0.50) = $5

Total Cost of Bulb = $65

 


Compact Fluorescent Bulb

(15 watts) x (10,000 hours) = 150,000 watt-hours

(150,000 watt-hours) / (1000) = 150 kilowatt-hours

(10,000 hours) / (10,000 hours) = 1 bulb

(150 kilowatt-hour) x ($ 0.10) = $15

(1 Bulbs) x ($ 15.00) = $15

Total Cost of Bulb = $30

So if you look at the computed cost of each bulb you see that a incandescent costs $65 for 10,000 hours of operation  and the compact fluorescent costs $30 for 10,000 hours.  Even though the compact fluorescent bulb costs $15, it is still over half the price to own and operate.

Water Heating

Water heating is the third largest user of energy.  Reducing the amount of energy consumed by your current water heater can be accomplished by:

  1. Reducing the temperature of the water heater, as described here
  2. Installing an insulating jacket over the water heater, as described here
  3. Installing insulation on the hot water pipes, as described here

The other way to reduce water heater energy consumption is by purchasing a new efficient water heater.  There are several different types of water heaters available today, which include:

  • High-Efficiency Gas Storage
  • Gas Condensing
  • Whole-Home Gas Tankless
  • Solar
  • Heat Pump

Gas Condensing and Heat Pump water heaters will have all-new models in 2009.  Both of these water heater types offer an easy replacement and significant energy savings.  A.O. Smith makes a gas condensing water heater that looks very promising, called the Vertex™ 100.  This water heater looks like your typical tank water heater but it offers 96% efficiency and can be used to feed a radiant heating system.

You can also use geothermal heat pumps to heat your water, and as you will see later in this article, to heat and cool your home as well.  A geothermal system that will heat your home, cool your home and heat your water typically cost several thousand dollars.

For some more information on water heaters and what type you may want to consider visit the Energy Star – Help me choose page.

Space Cooling

When you think about cooling systems, the first type you probably think about are air conditioners.  Over the years, air conditioner manufactures have continually increased efficiencies.  In addition to increasing efficiencies of traditional air conditioners, many companies have developed air conditioners that use solar panels or ice.  Solar panel systems use the electricity from the sun to help offset the electricity used by the A/C compressor.  Ice based systems will freeze water at night, when there is cheap excess energy, and then use the ice during the day to cool the air.  This saves energy and money because the ice reduces the use of the A/C compressor and the ice is created during the night, typically, when electricity costs are lowest.  For more information on air conditioner efficiencies visit the Energy Star Central Air Conditioners page.

Air conditioners are the typical cooling system but in addition to air conditioners there are several other alternatives that you could consider:

  • Ventilation
  • Evaporative cooling
  • Absorption cooling
  • Radiant cooling
  • Earth cooling tubes
  • Mini-split heat pump (see Space Heating section)

For more information on the above cooling technologies visit Department of Energy cooling site here.  A prime example of an air conditioner alternative is a geothermal heat pump system.  We will discuss how these systems are beneficial and how they function in the last paragraph of the Space Heating section.

Among these several cooling technologies there are also several methods that can be used to reduce energy consumption of your current cooling system:

  • Install a programmable thermostat
  • Sealing air ducts
  • Reducing air leaks
  • Shutting blinds during the day
  • Turn down cooling system, especially when your not home

Space Heating

Heating your home is vital during cold seasons and generating heat can be much more efficient than cooling your home.  Typically improving efficiency in this category is accomplished by the following methods:

  • Purchasing and installing new heating systems
  • Sealing and insulating your home

Replacing your current furnace with an Energy Star rated furnace can help reduce energy usage and costs.  If you are interested in looking at several alternative heating systems I suggest that you read a good article called, Alternative Ways To Heat Your Home on The Greenest Dollar blog.

The more that I learn about heating and cooling systems the more intrigued that I get with heat pump systems.  Heat pump systems can heat and cool your home.  These systems can either use outside air or groundwater as their heat source. The outside air heat pump systems are cheaper and easier to install than groundwater heat pumps but they are also less efficient.  Groundwater heat pump systems, also known as Geothermal Heat Pump systems, offer excellent efficiencies as well as a combined heating and cooling system.  Geothermal systems have a relatively high up-front cost, about $10,000 for a 1500 square-foot home, and require enough land in order to bury piping full of heat exchange fluid.

Geothermal systems offer high efficiencies for both heating and cooling.  As an added bonus, many geothermal systems can also heat your water.  If you can afford to go this route it allows you to increase your efficiencies in water heating, cooling and heating. For information on how geothermal systems operate visit California’s Consumer Energy Center site here.

Update:

In addition to centralized heat pump systems, there is also a smaller modular type system that can be used.  These systems are called mini-split heat pump systems.  They offer the same type of benefits as a typical heat pump system but these systems are ductless and can be added to an existing system (like wood, forced air, etc…).  Mini-split heat pump systems are primarily intended for retrofits or for installations that are difficult to install a large centralized heat pump system (think old house, or rental property).  These systems use an external compressor/condensor and indoor air-handling units, like your typical heat pump system.  The key difference is that they are linked to the compressor/condensor using tubing or conduit instead of ductwork.  By not using ductwork the mini-split system installation is simplified and the energy loss from the ductwork is eliminated.  For more information about this type of system please visit EnergySavers.gov here.

Computers & Electronics, Appliances, Refrigeration and Other

The remaining four categories would seem like large energy users but when you add the percentage from each of these categories together they equate to 34%, which is only 3% higher than space heating alone.

The three easiest methods to reduce energy in these four categories is the following:

  • Use Energy Star rated products
  • Install smart power strips
  • Unplug or turn off unneeded devices

Computer & Electronics

One of the largest problems with computers and electronics is that they continue to use small amounts of power when they are turned off.  Using smart power strips, like the Smart Strip LCG3, is an easy, relatively inexpensive method to reduce energy in the Computers & Electronics category.  Purchasing Energy Star rated devices when purchasing future devices or replacing existing devices are also ways to reduce energy costs.  When replacing existing devices it is crucial to compute how much your current device costs you per year and how much you could save with the purchase of a new device.  Many times you do not experience savings for several years, in some cases, waiting until your current device is in need of replacement is the beneficial thing to do.

Appliances

This category includes items like dishwashers, microwaves and ovens.

These devices, like all electronic based devices, use small amount of electricity when not in use.  Combating this is slightly harder in this category.  Using smart power strips and turning off these devices are not as easy or convenient as with computers & electronics.  You can unplug items like toasters but you can’t easily unplug a dishwasher.  Typically the only method that can be used to reduce energy consumption in this category is the purchase of Energy Star rated devices.  Replacing your current device may or may not be cost effective depending on the cost and savings of a replacement device, make sure you consider this.

Refrigeration

The refrigeration category does not allow you to reduce electricity consumption by turning off devices.  Just because you aren’t using a refrigerator does not mean the refrigerator will not need electricity at some point to cool itself.  With refrigeration, there are only two options for combating energy usage:

  • Purchase Energy Star refrigeration units
  • Consolidate and eliminate unneeded refrigeration units

Conclusion

Implementing practices that reduce energy waste like turning off lights, using smart power strips, installing CFL bulbs and purchasing only energy star rated products can greatly reduce your energy bill and usage.

Every small thing that you can do to reduce energy usage will save you money and will reduce the amount of energy used.  With many tax incentives available it makes these efficiency upgrades even more affordable.  All you need is a little bit of time and, in many cases, little money.

My next post will show you some of the things that I have done and am considering in order to reduce the energy usage in my home.

Helping Reduce Energy in the Industrial and Commercial Sectors

It is relatively difficult for you, as an individual, to have a large-direct effect on the energy usage in the commercial and industrial sectors.  These sectors consist largely of corporations and businesses that you have little control over.  This does seem like a large problem at first but, there are things that you can do to suggest increased energy efficiencies.

Commercial Sector

The commercial sector consists of things like: stores, restaurants and offices.  The commercial sector is mainly concerned about reducing operating costs.  As energy costs increase, the benefits of increasing energy efficiency also increases.  Some methods commonly used to improve energy efficiencies include:

  • Using Energy Star rated devices
  • Modern, automated HVAC systems
  • Efficient lighting
  • Occupancy and/or photosensors to dim or shut off lighting
  • Solar panels to generate electricity or to heat water

Most of the items listed seem small but when implementing several small changes, you can experience a larger overall change (I feel a reoccurring theme beginning).

Many companies in the commercial sector take suggestions from their employees.  If you are employed in the commercial sector, you can make a friendly suggestion to your superiors that include ways to improve energy and/or operating efficiencies.  This can help you by:

  • Being noticed by your superiors
  • By increasing your company’s profitability, therefore allowing you to keep your job.

So, if you have any ideas on how to improve energy efficiencies in your workplace, do it.

Industrial Sector

The industrial sector consists of things like: farming, manufacturing, mining, construction and water management.  Like the commercial sector, the industrial sector is largely concerned with maximizing profits and minimizing operating costs.  Reducing energy consumption accomplishes both.  The industrial sector can improve their energy efficiencies by using the same methods as the commercial sector, in addition to:

  • Using more efficient equipment for farming, construction and mining
  • Generating electricity from waste using methane gas
  • Improving manufacturing processes to use less energy

Several equipment companies like, John Deere and CAT, continue to improve the efficiencies of their products.  This in turn reduces amount of energy used for related industries, like forestry, construction and mining. Also, farmers who raise livestock are increasingly installing anaerobic biodigesters in order to generate electricity.  Any farmer that has livestock, has manure and will always have manure, so instead of piling it up, why not use it for something useful.  These systems can give farmers a way to use a pesky byproduct to generate:

  • Electricity
  • Bedding
  • Fertilizer
  • Heating fuel

Again, as with the commercial sector, many industrial companies accept efficiency suggests from their employees.  If you make a good suggestion, then this will reduce their energy usage and therefore make them more money.  Whenever you can benefit the company you are working for, it is a good thing.  It is not only good for you but, for your company as well.

Even though most of the efficiencies gained in both the commercial and industrial sectors will come from the companies and businesses making changes, due to increased costs, you as an employee can also help with your suggestions.  We need to remember, we need to work together to reduce energy usage EVERYWHERE in our society.

I tried to list several ideas and methods used to reduce energy consumption but, I could have easily missed something.  If you have any other methods that could be used to increase energy efficiencies in your workplace, leave a comment.

Next week, I will begin to discuss methods to reduce energy consumption within the transportation sector.

Monthly PickensPlan.com Oil Import Data

As I mentioned several posts ago, T.Boone Pickens, each month, reports on three oil statistics, which include:  Barrels of Oil Imported by the U.S. , Money Sent Overseas and % Imported from Foreign Countries.

There is some good news this month, the amount if oil that we imported (339 million barrels) is down from last month (408.7 million barrels). Also, during February the US imported 62% of its oil versus 67.4 percent in January.

It is good to see less oil being used.  The down side to seeing these drops in oil usage is this: the US hasn’t put any dramatic oil conservation measures into place so, this decrease in oil usage is due to the US economy worsening.

When the oil import data for March is available I will let you know (a month from now, of course).

New reactor design can put nuclear waste to good use.

Intellectual Ventures says they have developed a nuclear reactor design, called a wave reactor. This wave reactor is intended to use depleted-uranium as a fuel source. The reactor is reliant on a wave passing through the material to breed plutonium from the uranium. This allows for the use of spent nuclear fuel, without many of the worries of proliferation and contamination. Though the intent of this wave reactor is to run on spent nuclear fuel, theoretically wave reactors could also run using raw fuel as well.

The wave inside the reactor moves about one centimeter per year. According to the designers of this reactor, these wave reactors should be able to run for up to 60 years, without ever being opened. This also limits the amount of risk and cost that is involved with typical reactor designs, which require to be refilled with new fuel every 12-24 months.

Here are some questions that I have regarding this reactor:

  • What type of byproduct (waste) is there?
  • How radioactive is the material?
  • How much energy can be generated?

Unfortunately, these questions don’t seem to be answered, at least not with this initial information.  I’m sure there will be more information available as time passes.

A very interesting video that gives a visual idea of how this reactor works:  TR10: Traveling Wave Reactor Video

To read a more detailed article on the Wave Reactor visit Technology Review.

What is more dangerous, coal energy or nuclear energy?

You’ve heard the politicians talk about clean coal technology and you’ve probably seen the clean coal advertisements as well. Both the politicians and the advertising campaigns have failed to answer two questions directly, “What is clean coal technology, exactly, and what benefits does clean coal technology promise to bring to your typical coal power plant?”  Both of these questions are fair questions that seem perfectly normal to ask.  I asked myself the same two questions, but no one could really answer either of them directly.  Clean coal technology is a technology that exists mainly in theory but not in practice.  At the time of this writing there isn’t a single coal power plant in the United States that has any sort of technology being used that you could classify as “clean coal technology.”  The beauty of clean coal technology is that is doesn’t have to exist yet.  When enough hype is created over something that is still in its infancy, then eventually you begin to believe it is real and that we should invest in it in order to make our future a cleaner one.  Since clean coal technology basically doesn’t exist, and since no one can give a exact definition of what this technology will do, I have come up with my own basic definition.

Essentially what clean coal technology is promising, is to clean up what is coming out of the smock stack(s) of a coal power plant. Clean coal technology is defined on Wikipedia as:

Clean coal technology is an umbrella term used to describe technologies being developed that aim to reduce the environmental impact of coal energy generation.[1]. These include chemically washing minerals and impurities from the coal, gasification (see also IGCC), treating the flue gases with steam to remove sulfur dioxide,carbon capture and storage technologies to capture the carbon dioxide from the flue gas and dewatering lower rank coals (brown coals) to improve the calorific quality, and thus the efficiency of the conversion into electricity.

Clean coal technology usually addresses atmospheric problems resulting from burning coal. Historically, the primary focus was on sulfur dioxide and particulates, due to the fact that it is the most important gas which leads to acid rain. More recent focus has been on carbon dioxide (due to its likely impact on global warming) as well as other pollutants[2]. Concerns exist regarding the economic viability of these technologies and the timeframe of delivery[3], potentially high hidden economic costs in terms of social and environmental damage[4], and the costs and viability of disposing of removed carbon and other toxic matter[5] [6].

I believe all of these ideas are novel, but the idea of CO2 being captured seems to be quite prevalent. This seems to be a very important thing on everyone’s agenda. Even on President Obama’s site, the only thing he mentions in the clean coal technology portion of his site is carbon sequestrating. It seems like we should focus on some other major issues with coal as well, like the fact that coal power plants emit radioactive particles. Coal plants emit more radiation into a surrounding environment than does a similarly sized nuclear power plant (Source: Scientific American and ORNL). Studies have shown that people experience more radioactivity next to coal plants, so why isn’t the general public afraid of coal power like they are nuclear power? Perception. Nuclear power has gotten the reputation as being highly radioactive and extremely dangerous. Nuclear power can be all of those horrible things, if it isn’t handled correctly.

Nuclear power isn’t a perfect energy producer, it has some drawbacks since it uses uranium, a finite resource, which, like crude oil or coal, does not have an endless supply, and long-term storage of the nuclear waste can be dangerous. Handling nuclear waste is a very serious problem, but coal power has a very similar problem with coal ash. Coal ash is a byproduct of coal combustion and it contains several toxic trace elements like uranium and heavy metals that are dangerous in certain quantities. Why then isn’t coal getting scrutinized for its byproduct, coal ash? Why isn’t there the same amount of panic towards a coal ash spill as there is for a nuclear waste spill? Again, I would have to blame this on perception and ignorance towards nuclear energy. The general public is afraid of nuclear waste because of the negative attention it generally gets, but much of the general public is unaware that coal ash is also a very dangerous substance.

Several dangers of coal ash are known, for example, it is said to increase the chance of cancer in surrounding communities and it can contaminate water with toxic metals and chemicals (See EPA Map for some known contaminated water sites).  Coal ash contamination is a very serious issue that needs to be dealt with, but for some reason the EPA has only been “promising” action since 2000.  Promises don’t help people much, especially when coal ash spills kill wildlife, destroy homes, pollute soil and contaminate water.  Below is a picture from the December 2008 Tennessee coal ash spill.

Courtesy of Brian Stansberry on Wikimedia

Courtesy of Brian Stansberry on Wikimedia

Without much doubt, coal will continue to be a important source for producing electricity. The need for clean coal technology is valid, but what part of coal is getting cleaned? Are we going to start storing coal ash in safer more contained places, instead of in open ponds, landfills and abandoned caverns?  Coal ash has the potential of being used for many things like cement, paints and metal castings, but very little of it gets used for any of this.  I hope coal ash begins to be disposed of properly, in a more environmentally and human friendly manner.

Neither coal power nor nuclear power are perfect solutions.  Coal, however, will continue to be used and it makes some sense to use coal. In a country that is in need of electricity and a country that has a significant amount of coal, it only makes sense to use it in certain applications.  Pushing for alternatives other than nuclear and other than coal would be the ultimate goal for generating societies electricity.

Ultimately, I hope to give an increased awareness of coal power and the major issues inherited in using it as a source for electricity. Hopefully coal stops being, what seems like, the first choice in power generation and maybe the EPA will actually start regulating the disposal of coal ash.

T.Boone Pickens Reports on Oil Imports

I am on the Pickens Plan mailing list, so periodically I receive emails containing various types of energy information. Today I received an email from Pickens Plan giving the amount of oil imported, during the month of January.

Sadly, January saw a 7% increase in oil imports over December, totaling 408.7 million barrels of oil. Ideally the amount of imported oil should go down or at minimum stay relatively close to the same.

Every month the Pickens Plan website will post how many barrels of oil were imported, along with the costs associated with those imports. Feel free to check out their web page, Monthly Oil Imports.

When will oil production peak?

When will peak oil happen?

One of the most common questions people ask when first learning about peak oil is when will “it” happen. People want to know “When will we run out of oil?” and later, “What is the date of Peak Oil?”

Unfortunately, these questions probably do not address what people really want to know. One of the most difficult things in educating people about peak oil is that you have to start off by telling them that their questions are incorrect. These questions stem from a lack of understanding about the world’s tiring oil production system and the extremely complex interaction between fossil fuel production and the economy.

Energy that can be summoned up at man’s command is his wealth in the physical world, and fossil fuel currently provides the vast majority of this wealth. At any given time, the net energy available for use by industrial man is given by the formula:

Eg – Ep = En

Where:

Eg is the gross energy extracted.

Ep is the Energy that has been consumed in the production of energy.

En is the net Energy that is available to power the industrial economy.

The net energy that is derived from fossil fuel production sets the possible wealth that our economy can potentially create. How much fossil fuel is produced over a given period of time is determined by a great many factors.

One of the most interesting and poorly studied factors in fossil fuel production is how the economy is affected by the decreasing availability of high quality oil reserves. While the U.S. Department of Energy and IEA show that gross oil production has been approximately flat over the last few years, this data does not take into account the increased amount of energy consumed in the extraction of decreasing quality reserves. Nor does it take into account the large amount of diesel fuel energy that has been converted into less desirable Ethanol or that the increase in the world’s population has decreased the quantity of oil energy available per person.

As the quality of a fossil fuel resource declines, the net energy available from its production decreases and the strain on the economy increases. Eventually, the economy will reach a point that it cannot afford to increase production, and thus will be resized for lower energy consumption. For a time, the price of oil may decline. This decline in price will actually further reduce the supply of oil because the new, more expensive production and recovery projects will be canceled or scaled back. And while the decreased oil prices from the economic downsizing may encourage the economy to grow again, this growth will quickly be stopped by the limited supply of high net energy resources.

Consider how the long-term, global trends of increasing energy consumption in oil extraction have affected the U.S.

In 1965 when the oil industry was just starting to experience declining results from increased efforts in oil production, the U.S. was the world’s largest creditor nation, and the wealth of the U.S was growing each year. In 1970, U.S oil production peaked and began to decline in spite of the greater amounts of energy expended in attempts to increase production.

Move to the fall of 2008, with the U.S as the world’s largest debtor nation and its wealth declining each year. Not even global oil prices in the $100 range and above for several months could raise oil production substantially above the level that it was in 2005 when oil prices were in the $45 range. Now in the winter of 2008, the economy has given in and oil consumption and oil prices have crashed. This cycle can be expected to continue unless proper management is implemented.

Without correct management of the economy, it is possible that the economy can be stimulated enough to get a short economic up cycle with oil prices and production higher than ever before. However, this becomes increasingly unlikely with each cycle.

I am convinced that no one understands all of the things that would be necessary to predict when global oil production will be at the highest level. There are just too many factors, including some that are completely unpredictable like the weather and politics.

I think that the question “When will oil production peak” is more accurately addressed by the following two questions:

1. When will increasing energy intensity of fossil fuel production begin to limit the wealth that can be created with the U.S. economy?

That already occurred in approximately 1965.

2. When will the increasing energy intensity of fossil fuel production really show up as a serious problem to the global economy?

That too has already happened, in the fall of 2008.

As for when the all-time peak of oil production will occur, each month that passes with the economy in decline increases the likelihood that the peak is now past. The reason is that high net energy reserves are being depleted, and low net energy reserves are not being developed. This makes it unlikely that any economic up cycle can last long enough and allow oil prices to be high enough to ever increase production above levels that were seen in the summer of 2005 – fall of 2008. But we will have to wait for the history books to be written for the best answer.

“Green Collar” Jobs

Report: $100 billion would foster 2 million green jobs

According to the above cnet news article if the government would invest 100 billion in creating green tech jobs we would be able to create roughly 2 million jobs. Here is how the 100 billion dollar investment would be broken down: about 50 billion would be tax credits to businesses and homeowners, 46 billion would be in direct federal spending and about 4 billion would be in loan guarantees. All of this investment would equal to about the same amount spent on the recent economic stimulus package, according to the cnet article. This would have been money better spent. It could give people something they actually want and need, a job, instead of a “stimulus” check that probably wouldn’t even last a month.

The jobs created from an investment like this would range from generating new technologies to progress the use of biofuels, alternative energy sources, etc.. to jobs that would update current infrastructures like buildings, the power grid, rail, etc… to be more energy efficient.

Now I am not sure if all of this job creation would truly happen but our country has to invest into this stuff eventually if we want to avoid economic collapse so doing this now should help. Plus maybe we can get at least some of those 2 million jobs at the same time. I just fear that this investment would go to technologies that have little or no hope, like ethanol or a hydrogen vehicle. Now hydrogen potentially has a spot in our future as an energy storage source but we will save hydrogen for a future post.

Advancing Wind Power

GE is looking into several technologies that would advance wind energy in two ways: efficiency and reliability. GE is looking at using carbon composites, instead of fiber glass, as a material for wind turbine blades. GE is also looking at using different shaped blades in order to catch more wind, which will could allow the blades to rotate at slower wind speeds. Using carbon composites will give the blades increased strength which will allow the blades to operate at faster wind speeds as well as the ability to generate more energy. With the combination of longer blades, increased strength and different blade designs, GE hopes to increase the amount of energy generated from turbines without having to significantly increasing the size of the turbines. Increasing the size of the turbines means more raw materials, like steel, which also means more cost to GE and to their customers. GE hopes to keep costs down as much as possible while still increasing energy production from a wind turbine, this is important in order to keep wind energy an important, cost effective alternative energy source.

One of the biggest downfalls to wind energy, like solar, is the lack of consistency that can occur. Because wind turbines require the wind to create energy, if the wind is not blowing very hard or at all you are looking at less or no energy being produced. This can create disturbances in the power grid and power outages in areas of the country. Typically natural gas plants are used as backup power because natural gas plants can begin producing electricity relatively quickly and inexpensively when compared to other power plants, like coal. Due to the inconsistencies that can occur in wind power generation some are against wind power, while others have embraced wind as a viable energy producer. Supporters of wind acknowledge that it is not a perfect energy source, no energy source is flawless. Instead of giving up on wind energy they are developing methods that can be used to help improve the consistency of wind. GE is researching smart turbines and looking at ways to help develop a smart power grid to help alleviate this problem. GE hopes to you use software to find the best placement of wind farms and placement of turbines within a wind farm. GE is also looking into electronic control devices that would feed the power grid more efficiently and effectively. GE believes that if they can improve the turbines and the delivery of the power into the grid that many consistency problems can be largely improved. Others are looking at ways to store excess energy that can be used during times of limited wind or high energy demand. Companies like Energy Storage and Power are developing compressed air energy storage solutions. Basically a simplistic explanation of a compressed air energy storage is this: excess energy from the grid would be used to compress air that is stored in a storage tank. When the power grid is asking for more power than what is being produced the compressed air would be released from the the storage tanks and used to create energy. Now naturally there is some energy loss during the conversions but some of this excess energy is wasted anyways so at least this is a way to harness it at a later time.